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BUY HYPNALE HYPNALE VENOM ONLINE

Hypnale hypnale for sale Venom Online is a website dedicated to the distribution of Venom. Sri Lanka has experienced significant morbidity and mortality due to the envenomation of the hump-nosed pit viper (Hypnale hypnale, Hh), which is responsible for approximately one-third of all venomous snake bites. H. hypnale has been increasingly recognised as a dangerous and common source of envenomation in southwestern India (Kerala), ranking second only to the Russell’s viper but ahead of cobra bites in terms of frequency. Unfortunately, there is still no specific antivenom available at this time, despite numerous attempts. These investigations will look into the immunological properties of the venom, as well as the feasibility of producing specific Hh antivenom and the development of a diagnostic assay for the snake. Rabbits immunised with Hh venom produced satisfactory titers of anti-Hh IgG after the third immunisation. It was discovered that the anti-Hh IgG, isolated using the caprylic acid precipitation method, was effective in neutralising the venom’s lethality (potency = 48 LD50 per ml IgG) and other effects such as procoagulant, hemorrhagic, and necrotic effects, indicating that it is possible to produce the specific antivenom using the standard immunisation regimen. Using an indirect ELISA, researchers discovered that anti-Hh IgG cross-reacted extensively with several Asian crotalid venoms, particularly that of Calloselasma rhodostoma (73.6 percent), presumably due to the presence of venom antigens that are shared by the two species of snakes. With the use of a double-sandwich ELISA, the levels of immunological cross-reactivity were significantly reduced. Further research demonstrated that the assay was capable of differentiating and quantifying the venoms of H. hypnale, Daboia russelii, and Echis carinatus sinhaleyus (three common local viperids) used to spike human sera at various concentrations, as demonstrated in the literature. As a result, the assay may prove to be a useful investigative tool for diagnosing biting species and determining the time course profile of venom concentrations in the blood. Purchase Hypnale hypnale Venom on the internet.

In Sri Lanka and Peninsular India, the pitviper Hypnale hypnale is a small ovoviviparous species of pitviper that can be found in the wild.

According to the World Health Organization’s Guidelines for the Production, Control, and Regulation of Snake Antivenom Immunoglobulins, the Hypnale hypnale species is of the greatest medical importance in Sri Lanka and along the south-western coast of India, where it is found in large numbers.

The venom of the Hypnale hypnale is used in the production of antivenom immunoglobulins that are targeted specifically at this region of the body.

Acute renal failure can result from bites from the Hypnale hypnale, which causes moderate to severe coagulopathy and renal damage (ARF).

According to available information, the venom of Hypnale hypnale contains two phospholipase A2 subtypes (E6-PLA2 and W6-PLA2), which account for 40.1 percent of the total toxin composition, followed by snake venom metalloproteases (36.9 percent), l-amino acid oxidase (11.9 percent), C-type lectins (5.5 percent), serine proteases (3.3 (2.3 percent).

Adult Length: 0.30 m
General Shape Buy Hypnale hypnale Venom Online
With a narrow tapering tail and a short, cylindrical body, this snake is small and stout in build. Can reach a maximum height of approximately 0.55 metres. With an acutely pointed, slightly upturned snout, and ending in a wedge-shaped or hump-like prominence that is slightly turned up, the head is broad, triangular shaped, flat, and distinct from the neck. The dorsal scales are only slightly keeled. The pupils of the eyes are vertically elliptical in shape and are of medium size. Dorsal scale count is 17 (19) – 17 – 15 on the dorsal scale.
Habitat
The species can be found in agricultural plantations, particularly among leaf litter and damp undergrowth (rubber plantations; cocoa plantations; coconut plantations; banana plantations; tea plantations; coffee plantations); forests; and grasslands. Up to about 1500 metres above sea level, it is widely distributed in Sri Lanka. In India, you can go up to about 600 metres.
Habits
Although semi-arboreal habits have been observed, the majority of the species’ habits are nocturnal and terrestrial. When it is on the ground, it has a peculiar habit of keeping its head raised and pointed at an angle of approximately 45 degrees. During the day, it is more likely to be found at the base of small shrubs and grasses, under logs, or in leaf litter. Mild disposition, but if cornered or provoked, he will strike out.
Prey
Frogs, calotes, geckos, skinks, and mice are the primary prey for this species.
Venom
General: Venom Neurotoxins
Probably not present
General: Venom Myotoxins
Probably not present
General: Venom Procoagulants
Probably present
General: Venom Anticoagulants
Possibly present
General: Venom Haemorrhagins
Probably present
General: Venom Nephrotoxins
Possibly present
General: Venom Cardiotoxins
Probably not present
General: Venom Necrotoxins
Probably not present
General: Venom Other
Unknown
Clinical Effects
General: Dangerousness
Severe envenoming possible, potentially lethal
General: Rate of Envenoming: Unknown but likely to be moderate
General: Untreated Lethality Rate: Unknown but lethal potential cannot be excluded
General: Local Effects
Local pain, swelling & bruising
General: Local Necrosis
Does not occur, based on current clinical evidence
General: General Systemic Effects
Variable non-specific effects which may include headache, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, diarrhoea, dizziness, collapse or convulsions
General: Neurotoxic Paralysis
Unlikely to occur
General: Myotoxicity
Not likely to occur
General: Coagulopathy & Haemorrhages
Uncommon to rare, but may be moderate to severe coagulopathy
General: Renal Damage
Recognised complication, usually secondary to coagulopathy
General: Cardiotoxicity
Unlikely to occur
General: Other
Shock secondary to fluid shifts due to local tissue injury is possible in severe cases
First Aid
Description: First aid for bites by Viperid snakes likely to cause significant local injury at the bite site (see listing in Comments section).
Details Buy Hypnale hypnale Venom Online
1. After ensuring that the patient and any onlookers have moved out of the snake’s range of attack, the bitten person should be reassured and persuaded to lie down and maintain complete stillness. Many people will be terrified, fearing that they will die suddenly, and they may behave irrationally or even hysterically while in this state of mind. Because many venomous bites do not result in envenomation, the relatively slow progression to severe envenomation (hours following elapid bites, days following viper bites), and the effectiveness of modern medical treatment, there is reason for confidence.
2. There should be no tampering with the bite wound in any manner. Using a damp cloth to remove surface venom is unlikely to cause much harm (or benefit), but massaging the wound is not recommended.
3. When a bitten limb becomes swollen, it is important to remove any rings or other jewellery from the limb, especially from the fingers, as these items may act as tourniquets.
4. An extemporised splint or sling should be used to immobilise the bitten limb as effectively as possible; if available, crepe bandaging of the splinted limb is an effective form of immobilisation.
5. It is essential to support vital functions as a matter of first priority if there is any impairment of vital functions, such as problems with respiration, airway, circulation, or heart function. Bite victims who suffer from flaccid paralysis, including respiratory paralysis, may experience breathing difficulties, necessitating immediate and prolonged treatment, which may include the use of the mouth-to-mask technique (mouth to mouth), which transfers expired air from one person to another. Seek medical attention as soon as possible.
6. Avoid the use of tourniquets, cutting, sucking, or scarifying the wound, as well as the application of chemicals or electric shock.
7. Avoid ingesting anything orally, and avoid drinking alcohol at all costs. There will be no sedatives outside of the hospital. If there will be a significant delay before reaching medical assistance, which could last several hours to several days, clear fluids should be given by mouth to prevent dehydration.
8. If the offending snake has been killed, it should be brought with the patient to be identified (this is only relevant in areas where there are more than one naturally occurring venomous snake species), but it is important to avoid touching the patient’s head because even a dead snake can envenom them. No attempt should be made to pursue the snake into the undergrowth, as this will increase the likelihood of receiving additional bites.
9. The victim of a snakebite should be transported as quickly and passively as possible to the nearest location where they can be seen by a medically trained person (health station, dispensary, clinic or hospital). Exercise should not be performed on the bitten limb because muscle contraction will promote systemic absorption of the venom. If there is no access to a motor vehicle or boat, the patient can be transported on a stretcher or hurdle, on the pillion or crossbar of a bicycle, or on the back of another person.
10. The majority of traditional first aid measures, as well as many of the more recently fashionable ones, are ineffective and potentially dangerous. Among these are local cauterization, incision, excision, amputation, suction by mouth, vacuum pump, or syringe, combined incision and suction (the “venom-ex” apparatus), injection or instillation of compounds such as potassium permanganate, phenol (carbolic soap), and trypsin, application of electric shocks or ice (cryotherapy), use of traditional herbal and folk remedies such as the ingestion of emetic plant products and
Treatment
Treatment Summary
Bites from hump nosed vipers can have both local and systemic effects, and can be potentially fatal, though this is not always the case. Require immediate evaluation as well as supportive and symptomatic treatment. Although there is no specific antivenom available, some regional polyvalent products are claimed to provide coverage.
Key Diagnostic Features
Local pain, swelling, + coagulopathy, bleeding, renal failure, shock
General Approach to Management
All cases should be treated as if they were life-threatening and should be treated as such. It is essential to conduct a rapid assessment and begin treatment as soon as possible, including administering appropriate antivenom (if indicated and available). Accept all of the cases.
Antivenom Therapy
Antivenom is the key treatment for systemic envenoming. Multiple doses may be required.

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